Networking: December 2006 Archives


December 29, 2006

Sitting in the YVR Maple Leaf Lounge this morning I reflexively looked for wireless access, but of course it way a pay hotspot. But on my way to the bathroom I noticed that they have a table with a bunch of chairs and Cat 5 cables attached. Plugging in, it turns out that there's quite workable—though a bit slow—Internet access. Worth knowing.

December 13, 2006

Hack report has an interview with MagiQ CEO Bob Gelfond in which he claims that quantum cryptography is almost ready for prime time:
What's the standard price for the appliance and what is included?

For a point-to-point encryption you need a system that consists of 2 appliances - sender and receiver. The cost is around $100k, plus support depending on your needs.

When do you think we'll see service providers offer quantum cryptography services to their end-customers?

This will happen within one year and we'll see fairly wide adoption within the next three years. We are working with big carriers such as Verizon and AT&T as well as some companies that own fiber networks. The goal is to embed quantum cryptography into the technology infrastructure so it becomes totally transparent to the end-user. For example, if you are already leasing a fiber line, you can then add an extra level of security by activating the quantum service. The whole thing won't be disruptive to your infrastructure and it can sit on top of whatever you are using now. Since it won't interfere with your existing technology you can have a fall back mechanisms to switch back to whatever you have today.

The important thing to remember is that the security guarantees of quantum key exchange (such as they are) only apply when you have a direct link between point A and point B--i.e., if you're renting a fiber from AT&T between two offices. They don't apply if the data is being packet switched, such as in the kind of MPLS-style virtual cirtuit that people typically buy (because buying a dedicated fiber is too expensive). So, if AT&T sells you a QC-protected line, it just goes to one of their routers. Of course, AT&T could have a QC-link for each hop, but that's not an end-to-end security guarantee. You now have to trust each router in every data center.

Moreover, the current limit on a QC link is about 120 km. After that you have to use repeaters, which creates another potential point of compromise.

Apart from the usual high assurance customers, do you see any other industries that can benefit from (and justify) a quantum cryptography solution?

I think so, anyone who has to store and secure records for a number of years will benefit from it. One strategy eavesdroppers can deploy is to capture everything they can get their hands on. Even if they can't decrypt it today, they might be able to do that in a few years down the road. So the only way to defend against that is to use quantum cryptography. You have to make sure it's not just secure today but also going forward. Take healthcare for example, they have an obligation to protect my healthcare data forever. The real threat is that while theoretically current systems might be impossible to crack, the reality is that keys are not flipped frequently enough or might not be stored securely. All that can be used by an attacker to start a brute force attack. So if you have enough repeats it might just take them a couple of days to break them. And many companies do not flip their keys very frequently since it's a time-consuming task. In contrast if you deploy our system -- keys get flipped every few seconds -- automatically.

This argument confuses several points. What you have to know is that quantum cryptography systems like MagiQ's are actually used as what's called "quantum key exchange" mode. The bit rate of the quantum cryptography system isn't high enough to carry data so you use it to exchange keys which are then used in a conventional cipher like AES to encrypt the actual data. So, in that respect, QC systems are quite a bit like a conventional cryptographic protocol like SSL/TLS or IPsec, but with the QKE replacing the Diffie-Hellman/RSA/whatever.

Gelford's claim here is that the attackers are going to get their hands on (either by capturing off the network or getting access to your stored data) your encrypted data and mount a brute force attack on it in the future. In order for this to be plausible, one has to assume one of three things:

  • The attackers will somehow get access to the stored keys.
  • There is some analytic attack on current symmetric systems such as AES that we don't know about.
  • Attackers will in the future have radically better capabilities than we imagine (because the keys used for AES are outside the realm of what can be brute forced with any kind of conventional computation in anything like the foreseeable future).

Case 1 is exactly the same for QKE and conventional systems, since however you exchanged the keys you have to store them somehow. In fact, if you establish a lot of unrelated keys frequently then in some sense this makes the situation worse because you need to store them somewhere that has a lot of space which makes using really secure storage methods more difficult. This is one reason people tend to store their keys under some master key. So, there's a tradeoff here that doesn't clearly favor QC.

Cases 2 and 3 are sort of the same. In both cases we assume you don't have the keys but you do have the ciphertext. Now, there are two major reasons why in this attack model you might want to use a lot of keys rather than one. The first is that old-style ciphers (e.g., Enigma) were often easier to attack if you had a large amount of ciphertext or ciphertext/plaintext pairs. I think this is what Gelford means when he talks about repeats. This isn't really true for any modern algorithm except when the amount of ciphertext gets really huge (~1010 bytes for DES, ~1020 bytes for AES). This only really applied to analytic attacks in any case. In a brute force attack, one or two plaintext/ciphertext pairs are enough. The other reason you'd want to use a large number of keys is to slightly increase the attacker's work factor. If he has to attack 100 keys rather than 1, then it's 100 times harder for him. Mostly, if you get to the point where the cipher is so weak (case 3) that you have to worry abot this you need a new cipher and QKE isn't going to help you much.

The other weird thing about this argument is that conventional systems are quite capable of rekeying frequently and if you use Diffie-Hellman, there's no real concern about exposure of long-term keys. Sure, people don't typically rekey their IPsec or SSL connections frequently, but it's a simple software change and certainly quite a bit more convenient than buying a bunch of gear from MagiQ.